Questions 18-19 refer to the following passage. Indonesia, with 700 spoken languages, is one of the most multilingual nations ¡n the world. And while those languages with only a few hundred native speakers are clearly endangered, others, like Javanese, are spoken by tens of millions. But according to Cornell linguist Abby Cohn, even Javanese should be considered at risk of extinction. “If the next generation isn’t learning a language, there will be a precipitous drop in the number of speakers,” she said. And such a lack of intergenerational transmission is precisely what Cohn is seeing in her research results. Indonesian, a dialect of Malay, was named the national language at Indonesia’s founding to promote unity across the vast archipelago. Cohn notes that Indonesian is
often cited as one of the great success stories of language policy and planning. But the very success
of Indonesian threatens the other 699 languages in the island nation. To her surprise, Cohn found the same three-generational language shift happening in Indonesia characterizes immigrant populations in the U.S. “They’re building a new national culture with Indonesian, and it’s pushing out the local languages, similar to the pattern we see with immigrant communities in the U.S.,” she explained. Indonesian is perceived as giving speakers better educational access, Cohn said, and it’s considered a more democratic language, without the social stratification of languages like Javanese. “And there’s a fallacy — like we have in this country as well — that bilingualism is bad,” Cohn added. In fact, when Cohn talked with Indonesians about the benefits of bilingualism, many thought it more important to teach their children English, not their local language. While Cohn emphasizes that it’s not the place of linguists to tell people they have to keep speaking their language, she does think Indonesians should be conscious of the effects their personal choices have. “The reaction to my speaking about the issue was, ‘Here’s this outsider who cares more about our language than we do,”she said. “It’s had an impact on the urgency of the issue and the prestige of local languages. Even Indonesian linguists who work on endangered languages came up to me and said, ‘Wow, I never thought about this. I didn’t teach my child Javanese eithèrl”The reality, Cohn said, is that in 50-100 years the number of languages spoken in Indonesia will drop from 700 to perhaps 50. But while 90 percent of Indonesia’s languages have fewer than 100,000 speakers and are thus considered at risk of extinction, Cohn says the number of speakers is only one factor, and not the cause of a language’s death. She’s found only a weak correlation between population size and the vitality of languages in Indonesia.
19. Which of the following shows the correct sentence based on the text above? ..
(A) Indonesia has many local languages and nowadays they develop well in all islands in Indonesia.
(B) Indonesia does not have problems with the existance of local languages ¡n all islands ¡n Indonesia.
(C) Many parents thought that English and local language need to be taught to their children since their childhood.
(D) Many parents in Indonesia thought the importance of teaching English to their children than their local
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