DIRECT INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung) ialah kalimat yang diucapkan langsung oleh si pembicara.
Indirect Speech (Kalimat Tak Langsung) ialah kalimat yang diucapkan untuk melaporkan kata-kata si pembicara kepada orang lain.
Jadi, Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) digunakan bila kita ingin melaporkan kata-kata seseorang kepada orang lain secara tak langsung.
Perubahan-perubahan yang perlu dilakukan dari Direct ke Indirect Speech:
- To be & Auxiliary Verbs
- Time & Place (keterangan waktu & tempat)
- the week before, the previous week
- Present perfect continuous
Direct & Indirect Speech terdiri dari 3 jenis, yaitu :
- Statement (pernyataan)
- Command (perintah)
- Question (pertanyaan)
Dalam Indirect Statement kita menggunakan kata that (bahwa) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar (introduce phrase) dan kata-kata yang dilaporkan (reported words). Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam indirect statement ialah:
He said *
He said to me* = that + reported words
He told me*
Contoh Indirect Statement:
- Mary told her friends, “I have been to Bali twice.”
=> Mary told her friends that she had been to Bali twice.
- Father said, “I am going out of town tomorrow”
=> Father said that he was going out of town the following day.
- Mary told John, “my father warned me last night”
=> Mary told John that her father had arned her the night before.
- My sister said to me, “I don’t like tennis”
=> My sister said to me that she didn’t like tennis.
Apabila kalimat pengantarnya dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense, maka kalimat yang dilaporkan tidak mengalami perubahan.
Contoh Indirect Statement – Simple Present Tense:
- John says, “I will go to Bandung tomorrow”
=> John says that he will go to Bandung tomorrow
- Mary says, “I have seen that film”
=> Mary says that she has seen that film.
- My brother says, “I met Tom at the party last night”
=> My brother says that he met Tom at the party last night.
- Tom says, “I don’t like English”
=>Tom says that he don’t like English.
Command dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian yaitu :
- Positive Command
Dalam perintah positif, kita tambahkan to di depan kalimat perintahnya, sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan perintah yang dilaporkan. Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam jenis ini ialah:
He asked me*
= to + infinitive
He told me*
Contoh Indirect Positive Command;
- He asked me, “Open your book”
=> He asked me to open my book.
- Mary told me, “Stop talking to Jane”
=> Mary told me to stop talking to Jane.
- Mother asked John, “Pay attention to what I say”
=> Mother asked John to pay attention to what she says.
- John told Mary, “Wait until I come”
=> John told Mary to wait until he comes.
- The teacher said to the students, “Be quiet while I am talking”
=>The teacher told the students to be quiet while she is talking.
- Negative Command
Dalam perintah negatif, kita tambahkan not to di depan perintah yang dilaporkan.
He asked me
not to + infinitive
He told me
Contoh Indirect Negative Command
- Mary told John, “Don’t wait for me”
=> Mary told John not to wait for her.
- I told him, “Don’t mention it to anyone”
=> I told him not to mention it to anyone.
- Father asked her, “Don’t go there alone”
=> Father asked her not to go there alone.
- Ira asked Tom, “Don’t come to my house again”
=> Ira asked tom not to come to her house again.
- Mothers asked John, “Don’t smoke too much”
=> Mother asked John not to smoke too much.
Bila pertanyaan langsung (direct question) menggunakan kata-kata tanya seperti ;Where, When, Why, What, Who, How, dll, maka kata-kata tersebut digunakan sebagai penghubung dalam Reported Speech. Pertanyaan yang dilaporkan berubah menjadi bentuk positif. Kalimat pengantarnya ialah:
He asked me: 1. when
2. when, etc.
Contoh Indirect Positive Question
- The man asked me, “Where do you live?”
=>The man asked me where I lived.
- John asked Mary, “Why do you get angry with me?”
=>John asked Mary why she got angry with him.
- I asked him, “When did you get back from your trip?”
=>I asked him when he had got back from his trip.
- He asked me, “How will you go there?”
àHe asked me how I would go there.
- John asked the girl, “What is your name?”
=>John asked the girl what her name was.
Bila pertanyaan langsung tidak menggunakan kata-kata tanya, dan hanya merupakan pertanyaan dalam bentuk “Yes & No Question”, maka kita menggunakan kata-kata if, whether (jika, apakah) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan pertanyaan yang dilaporkan.
He asked me : 1. if
Contoh Indirect Yes-No Question
- The boy asked John, “Does Mary live nearhere?”
=>The boy asked John if Mary lived near there.
- The teacher asked her, “Have you finish your homework?”
=>The teacher asked her if he had finished her homework
- Mary asked me, “Did you she John at the party the night before.
=>Mary asked me whether I had seen John at the party the night before.
- We asked them, “Will you go to the movie with us tonight?”
=>We asked them whether they would go to the movie with us that night.
- Mother asked John , “Are you going to marry her?”
=> Mother asked John if he was going to marry her.
Note : Baik if maupun whether dapat digunakan bergantian
Direct & Indirect with Auxiliaries
Perhatikan perubahan-perubahan yang perlu diubah dari Auxiliaries
Do not need
Didn’t have to
Contoh Indirect with Auxiliaries
- Mary said, ” I was sick yesterday.”
=>Mary said that she had been sick the day before.
- The man asked me, ” Can you speak English ?”
=>The man asked me if I could speak English.
- Mary said to John, ”You may come to my house tomorrow.”
=>Mary said to John that she might come to his house the following day.
- Mother told John, ”You must study harder if you want to pass the exam.”
=>Mother told John that he had to study harder if he wanted to pass the exam.
- The police told me, ” You must not drive without license.”
=>The police told me that I wasn’t to drive without license.”
- The teacher told them, ”You needn’t hurry.”
=>The teacher told them that they didn’t have to hurry.